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Nursing Program Resources

Formulating a Research Question

Conducting research on evidence-based practices always begins by considering a problem or patient condition, evaluating the types of treatments or interventions currently available, comparing those interventions, and studying outcomes. Use the acronym PICO to help remember the steps for conducting a search for evidence-based practices:

   P = Patient or Problem

   I = Intervention

   C = Comparison Intervention (if you want to compare different types of interventions)

   O = Outcomes

The Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (CEBM) includes additional information about formulating good research questions related to implementing an evidence based practice.

Tutorials about Evidence-Based Practice and Nursing

Do you need a general introduction to evidence-based practice? Here are some tutorials that define the term and provide models for implementing evidence-based practice:

PICO: Developing the Answerable Clinical Question

This tutorial was created by the University of Illinois at Chicago to prepare students to understand the process of creating a research question. 

Introduction to Evidence Based Medicine

This tutorial was created by the Duke University Medical Center Library and the University of North Carolina. It provides an overview of evidence based medicine and case examples.

Evidence Based Practice

This tutorial comes from the University of Minnesota and is another excellent resource for learning the basics of evidence-based practice. The tutorial is split into two lessons and includes case examples.

Ted Talk -- Ben Goldacre -- Battling Bad Science

Watch this 15 minute Ted Talk to get a very comprehensive view of the dangers of the failure to carefully evaluate medical research.

Finding Evidence

A crucial component of Evidence Based practice is finding information or evidence that supports a clinical practice. We suggest using CINAHL, a comprehensive database with scholarly, authoritative journal articles, to help find Evidence Based practices.

  • Use the database CINAHL to find scholarly articles
  • In CINAHL you can limit your search to just evidence based practice. Scroll down the screen (under limits) and click on the box next to "Evidence Based Practice"
  • You can also include the term "evidence based practice" in your search. Using the term "evidence based" (without practice) will yield the most results.
  • Remember, a crucial part of the process is to compare the results of evidence and outcomes from multiple studies. Make sure to find multiple sources for your project!

Evidence-Based Practice

"Evidence-based medicine…is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research." (Sackett, 1997)

Evidence-based practice has become increasingly important in the fields of medicine and nursing.  An evidence-based practice is a treatment methodology or procedure that has been tested, studied, and proven effective--not just accepted blindly as a standard practice.This section of the Libguide will help you to understand the steps of implementing evidence-based nursing and for finding pertinent articles and research.